3 edition of Remote measurement of ice thickness on the shuttle external tank surface found in the catalog.
Remote measurement of ice thickness on the shuttle external tank surface
Jag J. Singh
by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, For sale by the National Technical Informaion Service in Hampton, Va, [Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||Jag J. Singh.|
|Series||NASA technical memorandum -- 102667.|
|Contributions||Langley Research Center.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||10|
So the satellite measures sea ice thickness by measuring the freeboard, and we relate that amount of freeboard to the total ice thickness by using assumptions on the ice density. We use satellites because satellites can measure large areas and because Antarctic sea ice at the maximum extent is about 20 million square kilometres, which is. Shuttle Reference Manual The Shuttle Reference Manual, most recently revised in , is an indepth technical guide to space shuttle equipment and operations. It was accurate in and while most of the information provided here from the manual is still accurate today, some facts may be outdated.
 This paper presents a model based on ice surface energy budget to estimate sea and lake ice thickness with optical satellite data. This model is capable of deriving ice thickness up to m under both clear! and cloudy!sky conditions with accuracy of greater than 80%. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the physics of the. Snow‐covered sea ice. Freeboard (F) is defined as the total height of the snow cover and sea ice above the the snow cover thickness (T S) becomes equal to F in areas of large snow cover, then sea ice thickness (T I) includes (1) the sea ice formed from frozen ocean water and (2) the subocean snow cover and sea ice mixture formed from ocean water flooding the submerged by:
lightweight external fuel tank for the Space Shuttle made primarily from an aluminum-lithium alloy. This new design, referred to as the superlightweight external tank (SLWT), is expected to weigh approximately 58 lb, which is approximately lb lighter than the light-weight aluminum external tank currently in service. No problems for the space shuttle Endeavor as it approached the final countdown. At a.m. EDT, the shuttle ignited its engines, cleared the Launch Pad 39A at .
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A passive technique is proposed for remote measurement of thickness of the ice layer formed on the external tank surface of the Shuttle during the T-2 hours period before launch. It is based on the comparison of the ratios of the intensities of three preselected near-IR wavelength bands scattered from the (test spot) and a neighboring (reference spot) on the tank surface.
Remote measurement of ice thickness on the shuttle external tank surface (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource: Document Type: Book, Internet Resource: All Authors / Contributors: Jag J Singh; Langley Research Center.
Ice accretion also occurs on aerospace structures when cryogenic fuels are used, if defects in insulators allow cold spots to develop. In particular, ice formation on the space shuttle external tank can result in structural damage during launching if ice of appreciable mass detaches and impacts the orbiter : D.
Heath, William P. Winfree. SEA-ICE THICKNESS Owing to the importance of thickness in sea-ice mass balance and in the surface heat and energy budget, remote determination of ice thickness at almost any spatial scale has long been desired.
Current spaceborne sensors, however, can. from the ice/frost accumulations has been the chief concern on past launch vehicles. The Space Shuttle has an additional and more complex concern because of its unique geometry.
The ice/frost shed from the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) ogive nose would probably hit the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the piggyback orbiter vehicle. Figure. Our goal is to measure the ice-thickness on a lake with the aid of an ultrasonic-sensor by measuring the reflections.
Our first hurdle seems to be to find a sensor that meets up with the requirements. (Able to capture the different reflections so that we can calculate the thickness) The Arduino HC-SR04 is not quite what we are looking for. An idea to re-use the external tank is presented. As the shuttle program gets to its final phase, and with the development of Ares launch vehicles, the same principle could be applied to this class of launch vehicles.
REFERENCES  “Improvements to the Space Shuttle’s External Tank”, NASA Facts. measurement uncertainty occurring from geometry is mm. As it is intended to measure the time dependent thickness of ice formation, it is necessary to use several nodes for measurement.
There are five measurement nodes on three radial lines and. tank will be placed within an Ice Bank Tank. The milk tank will be in semi-cylindrical in shape. As ice water is used as cooling agent, it is not possible for milk to freeze. b) Ice Bank Tank: Will be manufactured in SS material for both inner & outer shell & with high density PUF insulation in between the two shells.
The Ice Bank Tank will. The thickness of the ice on the coil at the end of ice remote storage tank where the slurry ice is float on top of the tank. The pure solution is The refrigerant used in direct refrigerant ice thermal storage system can be either R or Ra or even R (Ammonia). Procedia Computer Science 10 () â€“ Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi: / The second International Workshop on Sensor Networks for Information Gathering and Monitoring (SNIGM ) Monitoring winter ice conditions using thermal imaging cameras equipped with infrared microbolometer by: 4.
At present ice thickness can be reliably determined by drilling a hole and measuring the thickness by some form of hook gage. This procedure requires, however, that individuals venture out on what is possibly "too thin" ice to make the measurement.
For a number of thickness measurements over an area, surface drilling becomes a time consuming. sloping ice sheet, this leads to an uncertainty in the surface height equal to the ice sheet surface slope times the footprint width, or up to 65 m on a surface slope of 1 degree.
Prior to CRYOSAT, Radar-altimetry elevation-change measurements used the ‘crossover’ technique toFile Size: 3MB.
give a remote observer a measurement of ice thickness. In addition to ice thickness, a measure of the time that the partially reflected incident wave takes to return to the air- craft gives aircraft altitude.
For a plane wave at normal incidence the time delayCited by: 1. Remote sensing of lake ice Snow/ice surface temperature Cheng et al. () SIMB: In situ buoy measurement HIGHTSI: lake ice model Lake Orajärvi in Sodankylä.
The symbols in right panel:: regular snow and ice thicknesses measurement site;: SIMB site and; *: Sodankylä weather station 0 0 0 Eq. (3) and field measurements describes that, at full capacity the Duraisamypuram tank based on the GPS measurements M-m3 of water and M-m3 of water respectively.
From the SRTM data, the full capacity of the same tank was obtained by M-m3 of water from the equation and M-m3 of water from the DEM of SRTM data (90m x 90m Cited by: 5. The tank contains an anti-vortex baffle and siphon outlet to transmit the liquid hydrogen from the tank through a inch line to the left aft umbilical.
The liquid hydrogen feed line flow rate is pounds per second with the SSMEs at percent or a maximum flow of 47, gallons per minute. Ice thickness measurements are generally taken near the beginning of the month from October to June.
Readings taken near the end of the month are appied to the following month. To view historical readings please select the month/year below. In general, pump out minimum 10% after filling (consider the possible free water surface effect of the vessel’s stability).
Be aware that the tank ventilation deck valve and ventilation pipe could freeze and hamper the free airflow to and from the tank resulting in over/under pressure of the tank. PART IV. EXTERNAL TANK Introduction The external tank (ET) was the largest element of the STS and the only non-reusable major component.
The complete ET structure measured approximately ’ in length, more than 30’ longer than the orbiter. Since it was. Gentz, Steven J., Space Transportation System (STS) External Tank (ET) Intertank (IT) Foam Crack and Repair Assessment, NASA/TM and NESC-RP, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, February Report No.
LMC-ET-SE, Space Shuttle External Tank System DefinitionFile Size: KB. In the Here We Go Again department: it looks like a small piece of ice hit the Shuttle's underside on the way up yesterday.
The chunk was 4 inches long and came off the external tank. The astronauts took hi-def images of the Orbiter yesterday and will no doubt be poring over them again today.External Tank Thermal Protection System Myron Pessin Jim Butler J.
Scott Sparks Solid Rocket Motor Joint—An Innovative Solution Paul Bauer Bruce Steinetz Ice Detection Prevents Catastrophic Problems Charles Stevenson Aerogel-based Insulation System the Orbiter’s external surface reached extreme temperatures—.